Stomach cancer
Stomach cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. According to statistics, in 2020 in Korea, stomach cancer ranked first in incidence among other oncological diseases.

EFGDS (gastroscopy) is the most accurate method of diagnosing stomach cancer, during which the internal surface of the gastric mucosa is examined and biopsy material is taken. It is possible to diagnose stomach cancer only through histological examination of the obtained material.
Radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a screening method for the diagnosis of stomach cancer, does not cause much discomfort. However, during this examination, it is impossible to take biopsy material.
Endoscopic ultrasound of the stomach, CT of the abdominal cavity, ultrasound of the abdominal cavity are carried out to determine the stage of the disease and the presence of metastases. In some cases, PET-CT or MRI scans are also performed.

If possible, surgical treatment is the method of choice.
During gastric resection, the localization and size of the tumor, the degree of prevalence of the process and the patient's condition are taken into account, regional lymph nodes in which there may be metastases are removed.
If the tumor is located in the lower part of the stomach, then partial resection is performed (2/3 of the stomach is removed), if in the upper part, then total.
At the initial stage, when the tumor grows into the mucous and submucosal layer by no more than 2 cm, endoscopic dissection of the submucosal layer can be performed.
In addition, at the initial stages, operations such as gastric resection with preservation of the pyloric pulp, gastric resection with preservation of the vagus nerve, proximal gastric resection, etc. are performed.
At stages 2 and 3, radical surgery is performed followed by chemotherapy to reduce the likelihood of relapse and increase survival. In advanced cancer with metastases to nearby and distant organs, palliative chemotherapy is performed.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 25.000.000 - 30.000.000 won (abdominal surgery), 11.000.000 - 13.000.000 won (endoscopic surgery)
Esophageal cancer
Esophageal cancer most often occurs in 50-60-year-old patients. The incidence among men is 10 times higher than among women. Esophageal cancer is diagnosed during EFGDS (usually in the initial stages) or when symptoms associated with difficulty swallowing appear (usually in the later stages).

Esophageal endoscopy is a mandatory diagnostic examination for suspected esophageal cancer, during which a biopsy is performed. If there is a strong narrowing of the esophageal lumen and it is impossible to conduct an endoscopic examination with the sampling of biopsy material, then with the help of a special brush, scraping is done from the esophageal mucosa for cytological examination.
Computed tomography is an examination with the help of which it is possible to determine the stage, assess the extent of the process (invasion of nearby organs, lungs, liver, lymph nodes, etc.), as well as the possibility of surgical treatment.
Endoscopic ultrasound is used to determine the degree of tumor germination in depth.
This is an auxiliary type of examination that can help in choosing a treatment method.
PET-CT is an important diagnostic study that allows you to detect the presence of metastases in nearby lymph nodes and in distant organs.

Surgical treatment (in the absence of distant metastases), radiotherapy, chemotherapy.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 40,000,000 - 45,000,000 (operation)
Colon cancer
Colon cancer is a malignant formation of the mucous membrane of the colon and rectum. Types of colorectal cancer: adenocarcinoma (the most common type), lymphomas, sarcomas, squamous cell carcinoma, metastatic cancer.

Finger rectal examination (DRE) is performed to detect tumors of the rectum. Using this method, rectal cancer is diagnosed in 75%. After 40 years, experts recommend taking DRE annually.
Double contrast irrigoscopy is an X–ray examination in which a contrast agent (barium) and air are injected through the anus to detect pathologies of the colon mucosa.
Colonoscopy is the most reliable study for the diagnosis of colon diseases, which allows you to detect cancer with high accuracy, perform biopsy and removal of polyps. When confirming the diagnosis of colon cancer, the following additional studies are carried out: a blood test for the cancer marker REA, CT and MRI of the abdominal organs, ultrasound, PET-CT. Endoscopic ultrasound is used to determine the degree of tumor germination in depth. This is an auxiliary type of examination that can help in choosing a treatment method.
CT of abdominal organs is performed to detect metastases to nearby organs, liver, lymph nodes and is one of the widely used diagnostic methods.
MRI of the abdominal organs is performed if CT results do not clearly show liver metastases. In cases with rectal cancer, this examination helps to determine the degree of involvement of organs adjacent to the rectum in the process, as well as to determine treatment tactics.
Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs is used to differentiate metastases and benign formations in the liver and has a complementary auxiliary character. However, rectal ultrasound in rectal cancer plays a very important role, because it allows you to assess the degree of invasion, detect enlarged lymph nodes, stage and determine treatment tactics.
PET-CT is usually performed before surgery if, according to the results of CT, there is a suspicion of metastases in the liver and other organs. After surgical treatment, it is used for dynamic monitoring and in case of suspected relapse or metastasis.

Surgical treatment is the main way to treat colon cancer. The volume of the operation depends on the localization of the tumor, however, with any operation, a wide excision of the tumor, lymph dissection and vascular ligation are necessarily performed to prevent metastasis. In advanced cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy is performed after surgery, in colon cancer, chemotherapy is performed before or after surgery, which reduces the likelihood of recurrence and increases survival.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 25.000.000 - 30.000.000 won
Lung cancer
According to statistics, in 2020 in Korea lung cancer ranked second in incidence among other oncological diseases.
Lung cancer is divided into primary and metastatic. According to the type of tumor cells, primary cancer is classified into non-small cell and small cell cancers. If non-small cell carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma) is detected in the early stages, in most cases recovery can be achieved by surgical treatment.
Small cell carcinoma occurs among patients with a long smoking history and accounts for 13% of the total number of all types of cancer. It is considered aggressive and tends to early metastasis to lymph nodes, brain, liver, bones, adrenal glands, kidneys and other organs.

If lung cancer is suspected, examinations such as chest X-rays are performed,
CT of the chest organs, PET-CT. To determine the nature of the formation in the lung (malignant or benign), the most reliable way is a biopsy.
There are the following methods of biopsy: bronchoscopy, fine needle aspiration puncture biopsy, pleural effusion examination, thoracoscopic lung biopsy, endobronchial ultrasound.

Determination of the stage of the disease
Determination of the stage in non-small cell carcinoma
The first and second stages of the disease are a condition in which the tumor has not spread to nearby organs and it is possible to remove it surgically. The third stage is a condition in which there are metastases to the lymph nodes of the mediastinum. At the third stage, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are required. At stage 4, when there are distant metastases or malignant pleural effusion is detected, chemotherapy is performed.

Determination of the stage in small cell cancer
In small cell lung cancer, there are only two stages: organic (the tumor is localized only in one lung) and extensive (metastasis to another lung or distant organs). Complex chemo and radiotherapy treatment is usually prescribed.

Methods of treating cancer are: surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, anti-cancer immunotherapy, special endoscopic methods of treatment at the initial or late stages (photodynamic therapy, laser therapy, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, balloon dilation, bronchial stenting, etc.)
The choice of treatment tactics depends on the stage of the disease, the type of cancer, the age of the patient, his well-being, anamnesis, the presence of cardiac, respiratory and other diseases.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 24.000.000 - 30.000.000 won (operation)

Breast cancer
Breast cancer is a malignant formation that occurs in the epithelium of the milk ducts or lobules of the glandular tissue of the mammary glands

Methods of visual diagnosis of breast cancer: mammography, ultrasound of the mammary glands, MRI of the mammary glands.
Types of breast biopsy: fine needle aspiration biopsy followed by cytological examination, thick needle biopsy, stereotactic Mammotome breast biopsy, incision biopsy.

Surgery is the main effective way to treat breast cancer.
Types of surgical treatment: total mastectomy, organ-preserving surgery (with a small tumor size), biopsy of the signal lymph node.
Chemotherapy is an auxiliary method in the case of surgery and reduces the likelihood of postoperative relapses and mortality.
The use of chemotherapy, which includes from two to three drugs, is considered to be quite effective. With progressive, metastatic breast cancer or with relapse, chemotherapy is performed first. Radiotherapy is a local treatment method that is used for organ-preserving operations to prevent local relapses, as well as for total mastectomy in the case of multiple metastases in the lymph nodes. It can be used as a palliative treatment for metastases in bones or other organs.

Hormone therapy is effective in hormone-dependent forms of breast cancer.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 13.000.000 - 17.000.000 won
Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is a malignant formation that develops from the cells of the glandular epithelium of the prostate.
Risk factors include old age (the incidence increases sharply among patients over 50 years old), race (high incidence among representatives of the Caucasian race), genetic factor, family history.

The main diagnostic method of prostate cancer is finger rectal examination. A blood test for PSA is also given.
PSA values should not exceed 3-4 ng/ml. If there is a deviation from the norm, a biopsy is prescribed. MRI.

In case of local prostate cancer without metastases, radical prostatectomy is performed.
Recently, robotic surgeries have become increasingly used, which reduce the risk of nerve damage, vascular damage and erectile dysfunction. If the operation is not possible, then the patient is given radiotherapy. With the progression of the disease, hormone therapy may be prescribed.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 13.500.000 - 20.000.000 won
Pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most complex types of cancer. There are various types of pancreatic tumors, starting with ductal adenocarcinoma (unfavorable prognosis) and ending with neuroendocrine pancreatic tumor (relatively favorable prognosis).

Diagnostic methods of pancreatic cancer: ultrasound of abdominal organs, CT of abdominal organs, MRI of abdominal organs, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasound, PET-CT.

At the first and second stages, radical resection of the pancreas (pancreatoduodenectomy, pancreato-splenectomy) is performed in combination with postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At the third and fourth stages, surgical treatment is impossible.
However, despite the fact that sometimes surgical treatment is performed for local stage 3 cancer, in many cases it is not possible to completely remove cancer cells. To prevent this, radio or chemotherapy is often prescribed before surgery.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 20.000.000 - 40.000.000 won
Liver cancer
Liver cancer is a malignant formation arising from liver cells. In a broad sense, liver cancer refers to both primary (arising from liver cells) and metastatic cancer (liver metastases). Risk factors for liver cancer: chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis C, alcohol abuse.

The methods of diagnosing liver cancer include ultrasound, CT of the abdominal cavity, MRI of the liver, angiography of the hepatic artery, blood test for the AFP cancer marker, biopsy.

The most effective way to treat liver cancer is surgery. In cases where surgery is impossible due to reduced liver function or with progressive cancer, transarterial chemoembolization, percutaneous injection of ethanol, radiofrequency ablation can be performed.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 25.500.000 - 33.500.000 won

Thyroid cancer
Thyroid cancer is a malignant tumor that occurs in the cells of the thyroid gland. Types of thyroid cancer: papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, medullary cancer, low-grade thyroid cancer, anaplastic carcinoma, malignant non-epithelial tumors, malignant lymphomas, secondary tumors and others.

When a formation is detected in the thyroid gland, the function of the gland and ultrasound are examined. Depending on the blood result, scintigraphy may be prescribed for thyroid function. According to the result of ultrasound, a fine-needle aspiration biopsy is prescribed, and then a decision is made on further treatment tactics (surgery, repeated fine-needle aspiration biopsy, etc.). To clarify the diagnosis, a study for a mutation of the BRAF gene can be conducted. If necessary, CT, PET-CT, bone scintigraphy are performed before and after the operation.

Total thyroidectomy is the main method of treating thyroid cancer. Its advantages are an increase in the effectiveness of postoperative radioiodine therapy, an increase in the sensitivity of the study to thyroglobulin, and the absence of the need for repeated surgery in case of detection of multiple foci of cancer or metastases in lymph nodes.
Suppressive hormone therapy after surgical treatment of thyroid cancer is a very important stage of treatment, which allows not only to make up for hormone deficiency, but also to reduce the risk of relapse.
Radioiodotherapy is used to destroy the remaining cancer cells and possible metastases. Depending on the dosage, treatment is carried out both outpatient (low dose) and inpatient (high dose)

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 11.000.000 - 17.000.000 won
Skin cancer
Skin cancer is a malignant formation arising from skin cells. It is divided into primary and metastatic cancer.
Types of skin cancer: melanoma (acral melanoma, superficially spreading melanoma, malignant lentigo-melanoma, nodular melanoma) basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell skin cancer. Rare types of skin cancer: angiosarcoma, bulging dermatofibrosarcoma, Paget's extramamillary cancer and skin appendage cancer (hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands).
Precancerous conditions include actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, arsenic keratosis. These diseases can eventually degenerate into cancer. The probability of degeneration into cancer of actinic keratosis is 8%, Bowen's disease is 3-5%.

The main method of diagnosing skin cancer is a biopsy. A more in-depth examination is prescribed at a high risk of spreading metastases to distant organs.

Methods of treatment: resection of the tumor with reconstructive surgery of the skin with a local flap. Photodynamic therapy, as well as local immunomodulators (Imiquimod), cryotherapy, and electrocauterization have recently been widely used as a method of treating superficial basal cell carcinoma and precancerous conditions.
In aggressive types of cancer, complex treatment is prescribed – surgery followed by chemotherapy, radiotherapy, etc.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 9.500.000 - 14.000.000 won (operation)

Kidney cancer
Depending on the location of the tumor, kidney cancer is divided into renal pelvis
cancer and renal cell carcinoma, which accounts for 80% of all cases of kidney malignancies. The remaining cases are mostly benign formations.
Usually, kidney cancer is primary. For a long time, kidney cancer is asymptomatic. Symptoms appear when the tumor reaches a large size and squeezes nearby organs.
Pain in the side, hematuria, formations in the side or in the upper abdomen that can be felt are the three main symptoms indicating the progression of the disease and the formation of metastases. However, all three symptoms appear simultaneously only in 10-15% of cases. In the later stages, there is weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite, fever, lung or brain diseases may occur.

Ultrasound, CT of abdominal organs, MRI, bone scan, PET, biopsy.

Cancer treatment methods depend on the type of cancer and the stage. As a rule, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are ineffective in kidney cancer. The main method of treatment is radical nephrectomy, which includes not only the removal of a malignant tumor, but also adipose tissue, fascia, pelvis and part of the ureter. Recently, a method that allows to preserve kidney function – partial nephrectomy (if the tumor is small) has become increasingly widespread. Partial nephrectomy can be performed through open surgery, laparoscopic and robotic. In cases of complex localization and small tumor size, as well as if the patient has one kidney or does not want to undergo surgery, such methods as radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy can be offered.
Embolization of the renal artery is recommended in the following cases: the impossibility of carrying out the operation due to the invasion of the tumor into nearby organs, the patient's advanced age or the presence of concomitant diseases, as well as in the case of the patient's refusal from the operation.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 15.000.000 - 17.000.000 won

Lymphoma is a malignant disease of the lymphatic system. In Korea, nodular T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (63% of the total number of cases of lymphoma), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, anaplastic large-cell lymphoma are relatively common.

Diagnosis of the disease is carried out by resection of lymph nodes and histological and immunohistochemical examination. Also, through a blood test, an assessment of the function of the liver, kidneys and bone marrow is given. To determine the extent of the disease, it is necessary to do a CT scan of the chest and abdominal organs, as well as to conduct a bone marrow examination.
In addition, PET-CT, spinal fluid examination (if metastases to the central nervous system are suspected) can be additionally performed.

Surgical treatment, high-dose chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation are used as treatment.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: from 50,000,000 won (bone marrow transplant)
Leukemia is the formation of tumor cells in the blood or bone marrow. Leukemias are divided into acute (acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia) and chronic.

Diagnostic examinations: peripheral blood analysis, peripheral blood smear, bone marrow examination (smear, biopsy), bone marrow immunophenotyping, chromosomal and molecular genetic analysis, spinal fluid examination.

Treatment: chemotherapy (induction therapy, prevention of damage to the central nervous system, consolidating therapy, supportive therapy), stem cell transplantation, radiotherapy, targeted therapy.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 60,000,000 - 110,000,000 won (stem cell transplant)

Sarcoma is a group of malignant tumors that develop from connective tissue cells. Sarcoma is divided into malignant tumors of bones and soft tissues: skin, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerves, etc. Tumors can occur at any age, but some types of sarcomas occur in certain age groups, for example, Ewing's sarcoma is most often found in 10-20-year-olds, and chondrosarcoma – after 30-40 years.

If sarcoma is suspected, an X-ray examination, ultrasound, MRI, and biopsy are performed.

The choice of treatment method (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) depends on many factors: the presence or absence of metastases in other organs, the degree of malignancy, localization, age and mental state of the patient.

Cost of diagnosis and treatment: 6.350.000 won + chemotherapy

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